Panamá instala chips en sus árboles para frenar la tala ilegal

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El Gobierno de Panamá instaló chips con códigos QR en árboles de los bosques de la provincia de Darién, la frontera natural con Colombia, y en la zona Panamá Este, para frenar la creciente tala ilegal en el marco de un programa de trazabilidad lanzado este lunes.

Este nuevo Sistema de Trazabilidad y Control Forestal (STFC) da seguimiento y verifica la legalidad de los productos forestales durante su trayectoria: desde el momento previo a su tala hasta el destino final de los troncos.

“El sistema de trazabilidad es moderno. Panamá es uno de los pocos países de Latinoamérica que lo tiene, somos pioneros en ello”, declaró el ministro panameño de Ambiente, Milciades Concepción, mientra llegaban troncos o tucas con el chip instalado a un puesto de seguridad en la localidad de Chepo, a unos 200 kilómetros de la capital panameña.

El alto funcionario explicó que a través del sistema de chips no reutilizables se conoce lo que ocurre con el árbol “desde antes de que lo corten: el día que lo van a cortar y de ahí en adelante todo el recorrido que va hacer hasta el país que va a llegar”.

“Y en el caso de que se quede en Panamá nos daremos cuenta hasta que llegue a una industria”, aseveró el titular del Ministerio de Ambiente, quien ya ha alertado de la velocidad de la desforestación en Darién, una de 3 provincias, del total de 10 que tiene el país, que aún cuenta con buena cobertura boscosa.

El sistema contempla dos tipos de chips: uno de color azul, que se instala en el árbol del bosque, y otro amarillo, que se coloca en el tronco ya cortado.

La lectura de los dispositivos se hará en el mismo bosque y en los puestos de control instalados en las carreteras, donde los funcionarios podrán comprobar con una aplicación móvil la información que el código QR contiene: tipo de árbol, volumen del mismo, empresa responsable, matrícula y persona de quien lo transporta, etc.

“El chip es una aplicación digital, la cual se alimenta de la información en el recorrido, es decir, desde el bosque hasta su destino final”, destacó el ministro.

Así, las tucas que no cuenten con la debida identificación (placa amarilla) en los puestos de control se retienen, se decomisan y son entregadas en donación a otras entidades estatales que las requieran para sus actividades, o pueden ser usadas por el Ministerio de Ambiente, informó la institución.

La producción de estos chips está a cargo de empresas privadas, las cuales tienen que crearlos con unas medidas específicas “para evitar el monopolio”, señaló el ingeniero forestal del Ministerio de Ambiente de Panamá, Melanio Aguilar.

Posteriormente, las industrias madereras deberá comprar los dos chips, pero solo podrá colocarlos un ingeniero forestal formado y acreditado por el Ministerio de Ambiente.

Una vez que el responsable instale el chip azul en el árbol del bosque y haya subido la información a la aplicación, los funcionarios del ministerio tienen un plazo de hasta 60 días para ir al campo y verificar que esté bien colocado y los datos sean correctos, explicó Aguilar.

El pasado mes de septiembre Panamá aprobó una moratoria que suspende los permisos de tala a nivel nacional durante un año.

Una decisión que deriva de la realidad de Panamá: en el país solo 3 de sus 10 provincias tienen buena cobertura boscosa tras décadas de depredación que han acabado con al menos 50 % de los bosques.

En los últimos 7 años ha sido desforestado el 20 % de la provincia de Darién, considerada patrimonio de la Humanidad y reserva de biósfera, de acuerdo con los datos oficiales.

Unas 8,2 hectáreas diarias se están destruyendo en Darién, afirmó el ministro de Ambiente en una entrevista a Efe en la que alertó de lo rápido que están siendo destruida la selva.

Este desastre ambiental se atribuye a la falta ejecución de las normas ambientales y a la corrupción de los anteriores gobiernos, según denunció el ministro este lunes .

“La tala ilegal se acabó, eso era en los gobiernos anteriores. A partir del 1 de julio -fecha que el presidente Laurentino Cortizo tomó posesión- nosotros no hemos dado ningún permiso de tala legal . La tala ilegal la estamos persiguiendo”, sentenció el ministro Concepción.


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