7 de cada 10 empleos son dados por empresas pequeñas

Siete de cada diez empleos en un centenar de países son autogenerados o corresponden a micronegocios y a pequeñas y mediadas empresas, reveló hoy la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT), que por primera vez ha reunido y comparado datos sobre su papel como creadores de trabajo.

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“La conclusión a la que hemos llegado confirma que las políticas y los programas de creación y calidad del empleo sobre productividad empresarial y formalización deben centrarse más en estas pequeñas unidades económicas”, destaca la organización en un informe.

También por primera vez, la OIT se ha basado para esta investigación en encuestas nacionales hechas a los hogares y a la población activa en lugar de apoyarse en encuestas a empresas, lo que en opinión de los expertos da a estos resultados un mayor sentido de la realidad.

De estos datos se ha calculado que una media del 62 % del empleo en los 99 países analizados corresponde al sector informal, donde las condiciones son más precarias, y la informalidad se concentra en países de ingresos bajos, donde puede superar al 90 %.

La OIT menciona a Benin, Costa de Marfil y Madagascar, entre otros países africanos, para ilustrar esa situación.

En cambio en países de elevados ingresos -Austria, Bélgica o Brunei- la informalidad es menor al 5 % y en ellos el 58 % del empleo es creado por micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas o es independiente.

En los países de renta baja, estas unidades de negocio pueden llegar a generar prácticamente el 100 % del empleo.

Por regiones, la OIT señala que en la categoría de países de bajos ingresos (la mayor parte de países africanos y de Asia meridional) el autoempleo equivale al 53 % del total, mientras que en los países de renta media (la mayoría de los latinoamericanos) puede oscilar entre el 15 y el 61 %, y en los países de ingresos altos es del 11 %.

Las microempresas (entre dos y nueve empleados) están más extendidas en los países de ingresos bajos (37 %) y medios (22 %).

La realidad cambia drásticamente en cuanto aumenta la talla de la empresa, con las “pequeñas” (entre 10 y 49 asalariados) que adquieren más importancia en la creación de empleo cuando más desarrollado es un país.

La importancia de las medianas y grandes empresas (más de 50 trabajadores) como generadoras de empleo se centra en los países de ingresos medios-altos y altos, según las conclusiones de la OIT.

En los países pobres la tasa de empleo independiente -que en estas economías casi siempre quiere decir informal- es cinco veces más elevada (54 %) que en los países ricos.

Con estos resultados, la OIT recomendó a los gobiernos que creen entornos propicios para el desarrollo de las micro y pequeñas empresas en particular, y que se favorezca su participación en los canales de diálogo social existente con las autoridades. 


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